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  • Automated Toll Gate System Using RFID

  • Created: May 23, 2016

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Summary

The toll roads have existed since the classical era; passing travelers on foot, horseback, and wagons are collected with fees. The toll roads are public or private roads, which require a fee to acquire passage of the roadway. Nowadays, toll road still existed because of the heavy traffic on normal roads. As the traffic keeps increasing due to the increase of vehicle, many drivers began to prefer the expressways. Due to this, tollgates are becoming congested and manual operated toll gates cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of vehicle. This design is an automated tollgate system that uses RFID technology to ease up the congestion buildup at the tollgates. The circuit uses a PIC18F4455 for the microcontroller, because it offers a compliant of USB connection, many I/O ports and having interrupt pin for IR sensor (RB0). The PIC18F4455 is a 16-bit microcontroller, which contains a 32-KB program memory, and a 256-byte data memory.


The major components of the design are a PIC18F4455 microcontroller, motor driver, stepper motor, LCD display, 555-timer, IR sensor, and power supply. The motor driver (ULN2003A) that drives the stepper motor is a Darlington transistor array. It has a continuous load current rating of 500mA for each of the seven drivers and has a high output voltage of 50V. The PIC microcontroller is also used to control the stepper motor and display the deposited amount on the LCD. The stepper motor used is a unipolar stepper motor and its winding is made relatively simple with the communication circuit than bipolar stepper motor in open loop system. The LCD is interface to the microcontroller using 4-bit mode. The transmitter circuit uses an IR LED that has a 38kHz frequency. The 555- timer that is used in the transmitter is configured to operate in astable mode. The frequency of oscillation is f= [1.44/(R6+2R5) C7]. The receiver section is designed to pick up the transmitted frequency. The 555-timer used in the receiver circuit operates in monostable mode. The output of the 555-timer in the receiver is transmitted to pin RB0 of the microcontroller. The TSOP 1738 IR sensor was selected because responds to signal with 38kHz frequency. The RFID reader is connected to the host computer, where the graphical user interface (GUI) and database are located. The gate control system is connected to the PC through a USB cable.


The flow of the automated tollgate system; it reads the ID number of the RFID tag of the vehicle and detects if it’s registered, if not, registration is required. If it is already registered, the system will check its balance. If the balance is sufficient, the toll fee will be deducted automatically. The remaining amount will be displayed on the LCD and the gate will be opened. After the IR sensor sensed the vehicle that passed by, the gate closed. With the automated tollgate system, transaction time is reduced and congestion is minimized. This circuit works without human intervention.

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